- Known for its striking vermilion shade, this rockfish is also known to have some gray or white mottling along the side 
- On smaller fish, the mottling is more apparent, as seen in the image above 
- These fish have a large mouth, with a lower jaw that protrudes beyond the smaller upper jaw 
- Unlike similar species of rockfish, the Vermilion Rockfish have scales garnering their lower jaw 
- They usually grow to be between 35.56 and 55.88 cm (14 and 22 in), but the largest ever recorded was 76.2 cm (30 in) 
- Found all along the Northern Hemisphere’s Pacific Coast, from Prince William Sound, Alaska to San Benito Island, Baja California 
- More common along the northern part of the coast than southern 
- Typically found at depths of around 100 to 500 feet (30 to 150 meters) 
- Average 22 years max lifespan; Mature at 5-6 years, 14 inches (42 cm)[1, 2]
- Larger fish contain more eggs: a 54.6 cm (21.5 inch) fish is expected to have ~1,600,000 eggs 
- December-March mating period; internal fertilization with live young 
- Live amongst rocks at the bottom of reefs, and in other large rocky patches 
- Sometimes found in small schools 
- Eats zooplankton, cephalopoda (squid and relatives), white croaker, krill (Genyonemus lineatus) 
- Predators information not found
- Commercial fishery is open May 1 – February 28/29 
- No more than 1,500 lb (680 kg)/ 2 months for entire commercial fishery 
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries and the Pacific Fisheries Management Council, under the Federal Groundfish Fisheries Management Plan and is considered a “shelf”, or deeper water, rockfish [2,6]
- Caught in longline gear, as incidental catch in otter trawls , traps, and hook and line with other shelf fish 
Status of the fishery
- Aside from overarching Rockfish Conservation Areas and general rockfish regulations, few regulations specified to Vermilion Rockfish 
- In southern California, typically caught as incidental take in Bocaccio rockfish fishery ; only 74 lbs (33.5kg) caught in 2007 in San Diego ; classified by NOAA as a “minor shelf rockfish” fishery category 
- Current lack of concern for stocks; considered “healthy”; leads to large recreational fish [5,7]
- High abundance; in 2005, listed seventh most abundant in California 
Potential ecosystem impacts
- This species is incidental take, so no ecosystem impacts from otter trawls that can be attributable to this species
- Use of demersal (seafloor) longline gear have some localized impact from placing and removing the gear 
- Meat (muscle)
Description of meat
- Lean meat with a nutty flavor, medium or firm texture 
- Obtained whole and fresh 
- Roasted or deep-fried whole, often with vegetables [8,9]
- Commonly cooked to try a unique dish; may be roasted, baked, batter fried, or steamed 
- While typically cooked whole, serving size is per fillet 
- Information specific to Vermilion Rockfish could not be found; listed is the information for rockfish as a general category 
- Good source of Vitamin D; 6.9 micrograms per serving, or 46% of the daily value for a 2000 calorie diet 
- Listed as a medium mercury species of rockfish; between 2 and 4 servings per week considered safe 
- May - February 
 California Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2013. California Marine Sportfish Identification: Rockfish. Web. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Fishing/Ocean/Fish-ID/Sportfish/Rockfish#vermilion. Accessed: 13 April 2017.
 Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2017. Fishing and Shellfishing: Bottomfish. Web. http://wdfw.wa.gov/fishing/bottomfish/identification/rockfish/s_miniatus.html. Accessed: 13 April 2017.
 NOAA Fisheries. 2017. Rockfish Conservation Areas. Web. http://www.westcoast.fisheries.noaa.gov/fisheries/management/groundfish_closures/rockfish_areas.html. Accessed: 13 April 2017.
 California Department of Fish and Game. 2007. Poundage and Value of Landings By Port, San Diego Area During 2006. CFIS Tables16_21_pub. California Natural Resources Agency, California Department of Fish and Game, San Diego, California, United States of America.
 California Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2017. Summary of Recreational Groundfish Fishing Regulations for 2017. Web. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Fishing/Ocean/Regulations/Groundfish-Summary#south. Accessed: 29 April 2017.
 NOAA Fisheries. 2017. Rockfish Conservation Areas. Web. http://www.westcoast.fisheries.noaa.gov/fisheries/management/groundfish_closures/rockfish_areas.html. Accessed: 29 April 2017.
 NOAA Fisheries. 2017. Yelloweye and other Rockfish Species of Concern. Web. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Marine/Groundfish/Species-Of-Concern. Accessed: 29 April 2017.
 True, M. 2016. Roasted Rockfish with Artichokes, Citrus, and Lemon-Caper Browned Butter. Web. http://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/roasted-rockfish-artichokes-citrus-lemon-caper-browned-butter. Accessed: 29 April 2017.
 The Cookingfishmonger. 2016. Rockfish Facts. Web. http://www.cookingfishmonger.com/rockfish-facts.html. Accessed: 29 April 2017.
 The Dockside Market. 2017. Tuna Harbor Dockside Market: Rockfish, Shelf. Web. http://thdocksidemarket.com/new/#species. Accessed: 15 May 2017.
 Encyclopedia of Life. n. d. Sebastes miniatus: Vermilion Rockfish. Web. http://eol.org/pages/211616/details. Accessed: 29 April 2017.
 Encyclopedia of Life. n. d. Sebastes miniatus. Web. http://www.eol.org/data_objects/32082293. Accessed: 29 April 2017.
 NOAA Fisheries. 2017. Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast Sates; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2017-2018 Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Amendment 27. RIN 0648-BG17. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, San Diego, California, United States of America.
 California Department of Fish and Game. 2005. Review of some California fisheries for 2004: Coastal pelagic finfish, market squid, sea urchin, lobster, spot and ridgeback prawn, groundfish, highly migratory species, ocean salmon, nearshore live-fish, pacific herring, and recreational. CalCOFI Rep., 46:10–31.
 DFO. 2010. Potential impacts of fishing gears (excluding mobile bottom-contacting gears) on marine habitats and communities. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2010/003.
 California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. n. d. A Guide to Eating Fish from the California Coast. Web. https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/advisories/californiacoastaladvisoryposter110916.pdf. Accessed: 15 May 2017.
 SELFNutritionData. 2014. Fish, rockfish, Pacific, mixed species, raw Nutrition Facts & Calories. Web. http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/finfish-and-shellfish-products/4096/2. Accessed: 15 May 2017.
 Stein, N. n. d. Nutritional Information Data on Rockfish. Web. http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/nutritional-information-data-rockfish-1433.html. Accessed: 15 May 2017.