North Coast (Oregon Border to Point Arena)
North Central Coast (South of Point Arena to Half Moon Bay)
Central Coast (South of Half Moon Bay to Point Conception)
Santa Barbara (Point Conception to Point Dume)
South Coast (Point Dume to Mexico border)
This fish is highly productive! It is a serial spawner, with females laying an average of about 34,000 eggs per spawning event. 
This fish is regulated along with other coastal pelagic fish, such as northern anchovy, market squid, Pacific sardine, and Pacific mackerel. 
- Its scientific name means “naturally formed rough tail”.
- This fish has an average length of 55 cm (21.6 in). 
- Its color ranges from metallic blue to olive green. 
- Its dorsal fin has 8 spines followed by 31 to 33 rays. 
- This fish is found from the Eastern Pacific, from Southeast Alaska to Southern Baja California, Mexico, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico. 
- Eggs and larvae are commonly encountered beyond 320 km (200 mi) offshore. 
- This fish can live up to 30 years. 
- It matures at a relatively young age of one to three years. 
- It has the lowest adult natural mortality compared to every other pelagic schooling species in the same region. 
- Adults are often found offshore- can be up to 800 km (500 mi) offshore, 400 m (1310 ft) deep. 
- It prefers subtropical regions at 8 degrees Celsius. 
- It is found within mixed schools consisting of sardine, Pacific mackerel, and anchovy. 
- This fish primarily feeds on large zooplankton, juvenile squid, and anchovy. 
- It is preyed on by larger tuna, billfish, and marine mammals. 
- A 1980’s decline in availability of Pacific and Jack mackerel  led to rapid expansion in the 1990s of the market squid and sardine fisheries in Southern CA. 
- It is primarily caught from December through April. 
Regulatory and managing authority
- The Jack mackerel fishery is managed federally by NOAA fisheries and, as established by the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC) through the Coastal Pelagic Species Fishery Management Plan (CPSFMP). 
- It is generally targeted with “round-haul” gear , such as purse seines, drum seines, lampara nets, and dip nets. 
- This fish is also caught incidentally  in midwater trawls, pelagic trawls, gillnets, trammel nets, pots, and with trolls, hook-and-line, and jigs. 
Status of the fishery
- Peak catch occurred in 1953, bringing in 70,000 metric tons of yield. 
- Since 1991, catch averages have been less than 2,000 tons each year, composing only about 2% of CPS landings. 
- Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) are allocated depending on distribution in US (65 percent). 
Potential ecosystem impacts
- Assessed with “Least Concern” in northeastern Pacific, there is no current indication of widespread population decline. 
- Midwater gear has minimal impact on environment because it does not contact seafloor. 
- The flesh is edible.
- The bones can be eaten if in canned form (boiled).
Description of meat
- This fish tastes similar to sardine.
- The meat is dense, rich and oily.
- It can be fried, baked, poached, grilled, marinated, smoked and barbecued. 
- This fish is sold fresh, smoked, canned and frozen. 
- Recipe: Barbecued mackerel with ginger, chilli & lime drizzle. 
- Nutritional facts shown for drained, canned, jack, mackerel. 
- The flesh spoils quickly, which can lead to bacteria growth. 
- It can be prone to scombroid food poisoning; symptoms include flushing of the face and body, nausea, burning in the mouth, headache. 
- Year round.
 Australian Fisheries Management Authority. Jack Mackerel. http://www.afma.gov.au/portfolio-item/jack-mackerel/. Accessed 28 May 2017.
 Pacific Fishery Management Council. Coastal Pelagic Species: Background. https://www.pcouncil.org/managed_fishery/coastal-pelagic-species/. Accessed 28 May 2017.
 Luna, S.M., N. Bailly. Trachurus symmetricus. Fish Base. http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Trachurus-symmetricus.html#. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Snow, J.T. Jack Mackerel. Mexico- Fish, Marine Life, Birds, and Terrestrial Life. https://mexican-fish.com/jack-mackerel/. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Mason, J., Bishop, T. 2001. Jack Mackerel. Pages 309-311 in W.S. Leet, C.M. Dewees, R. Klingbeil, E.J. Larson. California’s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report. California Department of Fish and Game, Richmond, CA. Web. https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=34282&inline. Accessed 1 September 2020.
 Maccall, A.D., Stauffer, G.D. 1983. Biology and Fishery Potential of Jack Mackerel (Trachurus Symmetricus). CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 24. Web. http://calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v24/Vol_24_MacCall___Stauffer.pdf. Accessed 28 May 2017.
 California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Jack Mackerel. www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Marine/CPS-HMS/Jack-Mackerel#29347838-selected-articles-and-publications. Accessed 28 May 2017.
 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2016. Coastal Pelagic Species Fishery Management Plan as amended through amendment 15. Pacific Fishery Management Council.. www.pcouncil.org/coastal-pelagic-species/fishery-management-plan-and-amendments/. Accessed 04 June 2017.
 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Trachurus symmetricus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/183729/0. Accessed 28 May 2017.
 Jackson, CJ. 2007, July. Barbecued mackerel with ginger, chili & lime drizzle. Good Food magazine. BBC Worldwide. https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/4465/barbecued-mackerel-with-ginger-chilli-and-lime-dri. Accessed 28 May 2017.
 Nutritional Value. Fish, drained solids, canned, jack, mackerel. NutritionValue.org. https://www.nutritionvalue.org/Fish%2C_drained_solids%2C_canned%2C_jack%2C_mackerel_nutritional_value.html. Accessed 28 May 2017.
 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Histamine Toxicity. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/related-conditions/histamine-toxicity. Accessed 28 May 2017.