North Coast (Oregon Border to Point Arena)
North Central Coast (South of Point Arena to Half Moon Bay)
Central Coast (South of Half Moon Bay to Point Conception)
Santa Barbara (Point Conception to Point Dume)
South Coast (Point Dume to Mexico border)
Highly productive! A serial spawner with females laying an average of about 34,000 eggs per spawning event 
Regulated along with other coastal pelagic fish, such as northern anchovy, market squid, Pacific sardine, and Pacific mackerel 
- Scientific name means “naturally formed rough tail”
- Average length of 55 cm (21.6 in)
- Metallic blue to olive green
- Dorsal fin has 8 spines followed by 31 to 33 rays
- Eastern Pacific, from Southeast Alaska to Southern Baja California, Mexico, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico
- Eggs and larvae are commonly encountered beyond 320 km (200 mi) offshore
- Can live up to 30 years
- Matures at a relatively young age of one to three years
- Lowest adult natural mortality compared to every other pelagic schooling species in the same region
- Pelagic; Lives and migrates within the open ocean 
- Adults are often found offshore- can be up to 800 km (500 mi) offshore, 400 m (1310 ft) deep 
- Prefers subtropical regions at 8 degrees Celsius 
- Found within mixed schools consisting of sardine, Pacific mackerel, and anchovy 
- Primarily feed on large zooplankton, juvenile squid, and anchovy 
- Serves as prey by larger tuna, billfish, and marine mammals 
- A 1980’s decline in availability of Pacific and Jack mackerel  led to rapid expansion in the 1990s of the market squid and sardine fisheries in Southern CA 
- Primarily caught from December through April 
- NOAA Fisheries and Pacific Fisheries Management Council hold the ultimate decision making authority 
- Generally targeted with “round-haul” gear , such as purse seines, drum seines, lampara nets, and dip nets 
- Also caught incidentally  in midwater trawls, pelagic trawls, gillnets, trammel nets, pots, and with trolls, hook-and-line, and jigs 
Status of the fishery
- Peak catch occurred in 1953, bringing in 70,000 metric tons of yield 
- Since 1991, catch averages have been less than 2,000 tons each year  ; composing only about 2% of CPS landings 
- Managed under the Coastal Pelagic Species Fishery Management Plan (CPS FMP) 
- Listed as an “Ecosystem Component” species, generally infrequently encountered in CPS fisheries, monitored to ensure that it is not overfished 
- All finfish landed south of 39o N latitude are covered under a “Limited Entry” program established by FMP 
- Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) are allocated depending on distribution in US (65 percent) 
- Actively managed- annual assessment of stock status and fishery management 
Potential ecosystem impacts
- Assessed with “Least Concern” in northeastern Pacific  no current indication of widespread population decline 
- Midwater gear has minimal impact on environment because it does not contact seafloor 
- Similar to sardine: flesh is edible
- Bones can be edible if in canned form (boiled)
Description of meat
- Tastes similar to sardine.
- Meat is dense, rich and oily.
- Can be fried, baked, poached, grilled, marinated, smoked and barbecued 
- Sold fresh, smoked, canned and frozen 
- Recipe: Barbecued mackerel with ginger, chilli & lime drizzle 
- Nutritional facts shown for drained, canned, jack, mackerel 
- Flesh spoils quickly, which can lead to bacteria growth 
- Can be prone to scombroid food poisoning; symptoms include flushing of the face and body, nausea, burning in the mouth, headache 
- Year round
 Australian Fisheries Management Authority. Jack Mackerel. http://www.afma.gov.au/portfolio-item/jack-mackerel/. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Pacific Fishery Management Council. Coastal Pelagic Species: Background. http://www.pcouncil.org/coastal-pelagic-species/background-information/. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Luna, S.M., N. Bailly. Trachurus symmetricus. Fish Base. http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Trachurus-symmetricus.html#. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Snow, J.T. Jack Mackerel. Mexico- Fish, Marine Life, Birds, and Terrestrial Life. http://www.mexican-fish.com/. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Mason, J., Bishop, T. 2001. Jack Mackerel. Pages 309-311 in W.S. Leet, C.M. Dewees, R. Klingbeil, E.J. Larson. California’s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report. California Department of Fish and Game, Richmond, CA.
 Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Mackerel Research. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. https://swfsc.noaa.gov/textblock.aspx?Division=FRD&id=1119. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Jack Mackerel. www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Marine/CPS-HMS/Jack-Mackerel#29347838-selected-articles-and-publications. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2016. Coastal Pelagic Species Fishery Management Plan as amended through amendment 15. Pacific Fishery Management Council.. www.pcouncil.org/coastal-pelagic-species/fishery-management-plan-and-amendments/. Accessed: 04 June 2017.
 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Trachurus symmetricus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/183729/0. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R. & Dominici-Arosemena, A. 2010. Trachurus symmetricus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T183729A8166054.
 Best Fish Guide: Jack Mackerel. Forest & Bird. http://www.forestandbird.org.nz/what-we-do/publications/the-best-fish-guide-/fish-species-/jack-mackerel. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Jackson, CJ. 2007, July. Barbecued mackerel with ginger, chili & lime drizzle. Good Food magazine. BBC Worldwide. https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/4465/barbecued-mackerel-with-ginger-chilli-and-lime-dri. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 Nutritional Value. Fish, drained solids, canned, jack, mackerel. NutritionValue.org. https://www.nutritionvalue.org/Fish%2C_drained_solids%2C_canned%2C_jack%2C_mackerel_nutritional_value.html. Accessed: 28 May 2017.
 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Histamine Toxicity. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/related-conditions/histamine-toxicity. Accessed: 28 May 2017.